ccache 3.7.9

Release date: 2020-03-29

Bug fixes

  • Fixed replacing of /dev/null when building as root with hard link mode enabled and using -o /dev/null.

  • Removed incorrect assertion resulting in “ccache: error: Internal error in format” when using -fdebug-prefix-map=X= with X equal to $PWD.


  • Improved CUDA/NVCC support: Recognize -dc and -x cu options.

  • Improved name of temporary file used in NFS-safe unlink.

ccache 3.7.8

Release date: 2020-03-16

Bug fixes

  • Use $PWD instead of the real CWD (current working directory) when checking for CWD in preprocessed output. This fixes a problem when $PWD includes a symlink part and the user has set hash_dir = false.

  • Rewrote the Windows version of the lockfile routines. This should mitigate several problems with the old implementation.

  • If localtime_r fails the epoch time is now logged instead of garbage.


  • Improved error message when a boolean environment variable has an invalid value.

  • Improved the regression fix in ccache 3.7.5 related to not passing compilation-only options to the preprocessor.

  • ccache’s PCH test suite now skips running the tests if it detects broken PCH compiler support.

  • Fixed unit test failure on Windows.

  • Fixed “stringop-truncation” build warning on Windows.

  • Improved “x_rename” implementation on Windows.

  • Improved removal of temporary file when rewriting absolute paths to relative in the dependency file.

  • Clarified “include_file_ctime sloppiness” in the Performance section in the manual.

ccache 3.7.7

Release date: 2020-01-05

Bug fixes

  • Fixed a bug related to object file location in the dependency file (if using -MD or -MMD but not -MF and the build directory is not the same as the source directory then the object file location in the .d file would become incorrect). This fixes regression in ccache 3.7.5 introduced by the bug fix related to EDG-based compilers. Note that this removes support for EDG-based compilers again. (A better fix for this is planned for ccache 4.0.)

  • Removed the unify mode since it has bugs and shortcomings that are non-trivial or impossible to fix: it doesn’t work with the direct mode, it doesn’t handle C++ raw strings correctly, it can give false cache hits for .incbin directives, it’s turned off when using -g and it can make line numbers in warning messages and __LINE__ macros incorrect.

  • mtime and ctime values are now stored in the manifest files only when sloppy_file_stat is set. This avoids adding superfluous manifest file entries on direct mode cache misses.

  • A “Result:” line is now always printed to the log.

  • The “cache miss” statistics counter will now be updated for read-only cache misses, making it consistent with the cache hit case.

ccache 3.7.6

Release date: 2019-11-17

Bug fixes

  • The opt-in “file_macro sloppiness” mode has been removed so that the input file path now is always included in the direct mode hash. This fixes a bug that could result in false cache hits in an edge case when “file_macro sloppiness” is enabled and several identical source files include a relative header file with the same name but in different directories.

  • Statistics files are no longer lost when the filesystem of the cache is full.

  • Bail out on too hard Clang option -MJarg (in addition to the previous bailout of -MJ arg).

  • Properly handle color diagnostics in the depend mode as well.

ccache 3.7.5

Release date: 2019-10-22

New features

  • Added support for -MF=arg (with an extra equal sign) as understood by EDG-based compilers.

Bug fixes

  • Fixed a regression in 3.7.2 that could result in a warning message instead of an error in an edge case related to usage of “-Werror”.

  • An implicit -MQ is now passed to the preprocessor only if the object file extension is non-standard. This will make it easier to use EDG-based compilers (e.g. GHS) which don’t understand -MQ. (This is a bug fix of the corresponding improvement implemented in ccache 3.4.)

  • ccache now falls back to running the real compiler instead of failing fataly if an internal temporary file is missing after compilation.

  • Fixed a crash if localtime returns null pointer in localtime_r replacement.

  • Fixed header file dependency tracking when building ccache itself.

  • Fixed warning during configure in out-of-tree build in developer mode.

ccache 3.7.4

Release date: 2019-09-12


  • Added support for GCC 9’s -gz[=type] option (previously ccache would think that “-gz” alone would enable debug information, thus potentially including the current directory in the hash).

  • Added support for converting paths like “/c/users” into relative paths on Windows.

ccache 3.7.3

Release date: 2019-08-17

Bug fixes

  • The cache size (which is counted in “used disk blocks”) is now correct on filesystems that use more or less disk blocks than conventional filesystems, e.g. ecryptfs or btrfs/zfs with transparent compression. This also fixes a related problem with ccache’s own test suite when run on such file systems.

  • Fixed a regression in 3.7.2 when using the compiler option “-Werror” and then “-Wno-error” later on the command line.

ccache 3.7.2

Release date: 2019-07-19

Bug fixes

  • The compiler option -gdwarf* no longer forces “run_second_cpp = true”.

  • Added verification that the value passed to the -o/--set-config option is valid.

  • Fixed detection of precompiled headers in the depend mode.

  • Bail out on too hard Clang option -ftime-trace.

  • ccache now updates the correct stats file when adding/updating manifest files. This bug previously made the file and size statistics counters incorrect over time.

  • Fixed warnings from Clang about unused arguments during preprocessing.

  • Unknown manifest versions are now handled gracefully in --dump-manifest.

  • Fixed make check with “funny” locales.


  • Added a hint about not running when building from a release archive.

  • Mention that xsltproc is needed when building from the source repository.

ccache 3.7.1

Release date: 2019-05-01


  • Fixed a problem when using the compiler option -MF /dev/null.

  • Long commandlines are now handled gracefully on Windows by using the @file syntax to avoid hitting the commandline size limit.

  • Fixed complaint from GCC 9’s -Werror=format-overflow when compiling ccache itself.

ccache 3.7

Release date: 2019-04-23


  • Fixed crash when the debug mode is enabled and the output file is in a non-writable directory, e.g. when the output file is /dev/null.

  • Fixed an issue when printing very large log messages to the debug log.

  • Fixed bugs related to support for -gsplit-dwarf. Previously ccache could produce an incorrect link to the .dwo file in the .o file.

  • Compilations with /dev/null as the input file are now cached.

  • ccache has learned how to construct the object filename if no -o option is given and the source filename does not include a . or ends with a ..

  • Fixed a temporary file leak when the depend mode is enabled and the compiler produces standard error output.

  • Fixed a bug in the depend mode where a manifest hash only could be associated with one set of header dependencies.

  • Manifest files did not get marked as used on direct cache hits, so the LRU cache cleanup would incorrectly remove them eventually. This has been fixed.

  • The rewriting of absolute paths into relative paths in the dependency file has been enabled in the depend mode as well.

  • ccache now ignores unknown keys in configuration files for forward compatibility.

  • Rearranged command-line options into sections in the help text.

  • Documented the previously undocumented --dump-manifest and --hash-file options (only useful for debugging ccache itself).

  • Added missing documentation for the command-line option -k/--get-config added in ccache 3.5.

  • Renamed the --print-config command to --show-config.

  • Added a new --print-stats command that prints statistics counters in machine-parsable (tab-separated) format.

  • ccache no longer creates a missing output directory, thus mimicking the compiler behavior for -o out/obj.o when “out” doesn’t exist.

  • -fdebug-prefix-map=ARG, -ffile-prefix-map=ARG and -fmacro-prefix-map=ARG are now included in the hash, but only the part before “ARG”. This fixes a bug where compiler feature detection of said flags would not work correctly with ccache.

  • Bail out on too hard compiler option -gtoggle.

  • Bail out on too hard Clang options --analyze and -analyze.

  • Improved debug logging of file hashes in depend mode.

  • Improved handling of various -g* options. In particular, ccache now understands that -g0 cancels out previous -g* options.

  • Worked around a problem with Automake related to .d files when using the hard link mode.

  • Added opt-in (at configure time) support for enabling trace logs for profiling ccache itself. See doc/ in the code tree for more information

  • Removed support for Fortran 77 again. Some Fortran support was added in ccache 3.3, but the implementation did not work when Fortran modules are involved.

ccache 3.6

Release date: 2019-01-14


  • ccache now has an opt-in “depend mode”. When enabled, ccache never executes the preprocessor, which results in much lower cache miss overhead at the expense of a lower potential cache hit rate. The depend mode is only possible to use when the compiler option -MD or -MMD is used.

  • Added support for GCC’s -ffile-prefix-map option. The -fmacro-prefix-map option is now also skipped from the hash.

  • Added support for multiple -fsanitize-blacklist arguments.

  • ccache now includes the environment variables LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE and LC_MESSAGES in the hash since they may affect localization of compiler warning messages. Set sloppiness to locale to opt out of this.

  • Fixed a problem due to Clang overwriting the output file when compiling an assembler file.

  • Clarified the manual to explain the reasoning behind the “file_macro” sloppiness setting in a better way.

  • ccache now handles several levels of nonexistent directories when rewriting absolute paths to relative.

  • A new sloppiness setting clang_index_store makes ccache skip the Clang compiler option -index-store-path and its argument when computing the manifest hash. This is useful if you use Xcode, which uses an index store path derived from the local project path. Note that the index store won’t be updated correctly on cache hits if you enable this option.

  • Rename sloppiness no_system_headers to system_headers for consistency with other options. no_system_headers can still be used as an (undocumented) alias.

  • The GCC variables “DEPENDENCIES_OUTPUT” and “SUNPRO_DEPENDENCIES” are now supported correctly.

  • The algorithm that scans for __DATE_ and __TIME__ tokens in the hashed source code now doesn’t produce false positives for tokens where __DATE__ or __TIME__ is a substring.

ccache 3.5.1

Release date: 2019-01-02


  • Added missing getopt_long.c source file to release archive.

  • Fixed (harmless) compiler warnings when building ccache object files.

  • CFLAGS is no longer passed to the linker when linking ccache.

  • Improved development mode build flags.

ccache 3.5

Release date: 2018-10-15


  • Added a boolean debug (CCACHE_DEBUG) configuration option. When enabled, ccache will create per-object debug files that are helpful e.g. when debugging unexpected cache misses. See also the new “Cache debugging” section in the manual.

  • Renamed CCACHE_CC to CCACHE_COMPILER (keeping the former as a deprecated alias).

  • Added a new command-line option -k/--get-config that prints the value of a config key.

  • It is now possible to let ccache hash a precomputed checksum file instead of the full content of a precompiled header. This can save time for large precompiled headers. Note that the build system needs to keep the checksum file in sync with the precompiled header for this to work.

  • Improved performance substantially when using hash_dir = false on platforms like macOS where getcwd() is slow.

  • Added “stats updated” timestamp in ccache -s output. This can be useful if you wonder whether ccache actually was used for your last build.

  • Renamed “stats zero time” to “stats zeroed” and documented it. The counter is also now only present in ccache -s output when ccache -z actually has been called.

  • The content of the -fsanitize-blacklist file is now included in the hash, so updates to the file will now correctly result in separate cache entries.

  • It’s now possible to opt out of building and installing man pages when running make install in the source repository.

  • If the compiler type can’t be detected (e.g. if it is named cc), use safer defaults that won’t trip up Clang.

  • Made the ccache test suite work on FreeBSD.

  • Added file_stat_matches_ctime option to disable ctime check if file_stat_matches is enabled.

  • Made “./configure --without-bundled-zlib” do what’s intended.

ccache 3.4.3

Release date: 2018-09-02

Bug fixes

  • Fixed a race condition when creating the initial config file in the cache directory.

  • Bail out on too hard Clang option -MJ.

  • Bail out on too hard option -save-temps=obj.

  • Handle separate parameter to Clang option -target correctly.

  • Upgraded bundled zlib to version 1.2.11.

ccache 3.4.2

Release date: 2018-03-25

Bug fixes

  • The cleanup algorithm has been fixed to not misbehave when files are removed by another process while the cleanup process is running. Previously, too many files could be removed from the cache if multiple cleanup processes were triggered at the same time, in extreme cases trimming the cache to a much smaller size than the configured limits.

  • Correctly hash preprocessed headers located in a “.gch directory”. Previously, ccache would not pick up changes to such precompiled headers, risking false positive cache hits.

  • Fixed build failure when using the bundled zlib sources.

  • ccache 3.3.5 added a workaround for not triggering Clang errors when a precompiled header’s dependency has an updated timestamp (but identical content). That workaround is now only applied when the compiler is Clang.

  • Made it possible to perform out-of-source builds in dev mode again.

ccache 3.4.1

Release date: 2018-02-11

Bug fixes

  • Fixed printing of version number in ccache --version.

ccache 3.4

Release date: 2018-02-11

New features and enhancements

  • The compiler option form --sysroot arg is now handled like the documented --sysroot=arg form.

  • Added support for caching .su files generated by GCC flag -fstack-usage.

  • ccache should now work with distcc’s “pump” wrapper.

  • The optional unifier is no longer disabled when the direct mode is enabled.

  • Added support for NVCC compiler options --compiler-bindir/-ccbin, --output-directory/-odir and --libdevice-directory/-ldir.

  • Boolean environment variable settings no longer accept the following (case-insensitive) values: 0, false, disable and no. All other values are accepted and taken to mean “true”. This is to stop users from setting e.g. CCACHE_DISABLE=0 and then expect the cache to be used.

  • Improved support for run_second_cpp = false: If combined with passing -fdirectives-only (GCC) or frewrite-includes (Clang) to the compiler, diagnostics warnings and similar will be correct.

  • An implicit -MQ is now passed to the preprocessor only if the object file extension is non-standard. This should make it easier to use EDG-based compilers (e.g. GHS) which don’t understand -MQ.

  • ccache now treats an unreadable configuration file just like a missing configuration file.

  • Documented more pitfalls with enabling hard_links (CCACHE_HARDLINK).

  • Documented caveats related to colored warnings from compilers.

Bug fixes

  • File size and number counters are now updated correctly when files are overwritten in the cache, e.g. when using CCACHE_RECACHE.

  • run_second_cpp is now forced for NVCC.

  • Fixed how the NVCC options -optf and -odir are handled.

ccache 3.3.6

Release date: 2018-01-28

New features and enhancements

  • Improved instructions on how to get cache hits between different working directories.

Bug fixes

  • Fixed regression in ccache 3.3.5 related to the UNCACHED_ERR_FD feature.

ccache 3.3.5

Release date: 2018-01-13

New features and enhancements

  • Documented how automatic cache cleanup works.

Bug fixes

  • Fixed a regression where the original order of debug options could be lost. This reverts the “Improved parsing of -g* options” feature in ccache 3.3.

  • Multiple -fdebug-prefix-map options should now be handled correctly.

  • Fixed matching of directories in the ignore_headers_in_manifest configuration option.

  • Fixed detection of missing argument to -opt/--options-file.

  • ccache now bails out when building a precompiled header if any of the corresponding header files has an updated timestamp. This fixes complaints from Clang.

  • Fixed a bug related to erroneously storing a dependency file with absolute paths in the cache on a preprocessed hit.

  • ccache -c/--cleanup now works like documented: it just recalculates size counters and trims the cache to not exceed the max size and file number limits. Previously, the forced cleanup took “limit_multiple” into account, so that ccache -c/--cleanup by default would trim the cache to 80% of the max limit.

  • ccache no longer ignores linker arguments for Clang since Clang warns about them.

  • Plugged a couple of file descriptor leaks.

  • Fixed a bug where ccache would skip hashing the compiler argument following a -fno-working-directory, -fworking-directory, -nostdinc, -nostdinc++, -remap or -trigraphs option in preprocessor mode.

ccache 3.3.4

Release date: 2017-02-17

New features and enhancements

  • Documented the different cache statistics counters.

Bug fixes

  • Fixed a regression in ccache 3.3 related to potentially bad content of dependency files when compiling identical source code but with different source paths. This was only partially fixed in 3.3.2 and reverts the new “Names of included files are no longer included in the hash of the compiler’s preprocessed output” feature in 3.3.

  • Corrected statistics counter for -optf/--options-file failure.

  • Fixed undefined behavior warnings in ccache found by -fsanitize=undefined.

ccache 3.3.3

Release date: 2016-10-26

Bug fixes

  • ccache now detects usage of .incbin assembler directives in the source code and avoids caching such compilations.

ccache 3.3.2

Release date: 2016-09-28

Bug fixes

  • Fixed a regression in ccache 3.3 related to potentially bad content of dependency files when compiling identical source code but with different source paths.

  • Fixed a regression in ccache 3.3.1: ccache could get confused when using the compiler option -Wp, to pass multiple options to the preprocessor, resulting in missing dependency files from direct mode cache hits.

ccache 3.3.1

Release date: 2016-09-07

Bug fixes

  • Fixed a problem in the “multiple -arch options” support introduced in 3.3. When using the direct mode (the default), different combinations of -arch options were not detected properly.

  • Fixed an issue when compiler option -Wp,-MT,path is used instead of -MT path (and similar for -MF, -MP and -MQ) and run_second_cpp (CCACHE_CPP2) is enabled.

ccache 3.3

Release date: 2016-08-27


  • A C99-compatible compiler is now required to build ccache.

New features and enhancements

  • The configuration option run_second_cpp (CCACHE_CPP2) now defaults to true. This improves ccache’s out-of-the-box experience for compilers that can’t compile their own preprocessed output with the same outcome as if they compiled the real source code directly, e.g. newer versions of GCC and Clang.

  • The configuration option hash_dir (CCACHE_HASHDIR) now defaults to true.

  • Added a new ignore_headers_in_manifest configuration option, which specifies headers that should be ignored in the direct mode.

  • Added a new prefix_command_cpp (CCACHE_PREFIX_CPP) configuration option, which specifies one or several prefixes to add to the command line ccache uses when invoking the preprocessor.

  • Added a new limit_multiple (CCACHE_LIMIT_MULTIPLE) configuration option, which specifies how much of the cache to remove when cleaning.

  • Added a new keep_comments_cpp (CCACHE_COMMENTS) configuration option, which tells ccache not to discard the comments before hashing preprocessor output. This can be used to check documentation with -Wdocumentation.

  • Added a new sloppiness option no_system_headers, which tells ccache not to include system headers in manifest files.

  • Added a new statistics counter that tracks the number of performed cleanups due to the cache size being over the limit. The value is shown in the output of “ccache -s”.

  • Added support for relocating debug info directory using -fdebug-prefix-map. This allows for cache hits even when hash_dir is used in combination with base_dir.

  • Added a new “cache hit rate” field to the output of “ccache -s”.

  • Added support for caching compilation of assembler code produced by e.g. “gcc -S file.c”.

  • Added support for cuda including the -optf/--options-file option.

  • Added support for Fortran 77.

  • Added support for multiple -arch options to produce "fat binaries".

  • Multiple identical -arch arguments are now handled without bailing.

  • The concatenated form of some long compiler options is now recognized, for example when using -isystemPATH instead of -isystem PATH.

  • If hard-linking is enabled and but fails (e.g. due to cross-device linking), ccache now falls back to copying instead of running the compiler.

  • Made the hash_dir option only have effect when generating debug info.

  • ccache now knows how to convert absolute paths to relative paths inside dependency files when using base_dir.

  • Improved parsing of -g* options.

  • Made ccache understand -Wp,-D* options.

  • ccache now understands the undocumented -coverage (only one dash) GCC option.

  • Names of included files are no longer included in the hash of the compiler’s preprocessed output. This leads to more potential cache hits when not using the direct mode.

  • Increased buffer size used when reading file data. This improves performance slightly.

Bug fixes

  • Bail out on too hard compiler option -P.

  • Fixed Clang test suite when running on Linux.

  • Fixed build and test for MinGW32 and Windows.

ccache 3.2.9

Release date: 2016-09-28

Bug fixes

  • Fixed a regression in ccache 3.2.8: ccache could get confused when using the compiler option -Wp, to pass multiple options to the preprocessor, resulting in missing dependency files from direct mode cache hits.

ccache 3.2.8

Release date: 2016-09-07

Bug fixes

  • Fixed an issue when compiler option -Wp,-MT,path is used instead of -MT path (and similar for -MF, -MP and -MQ) and run_second_cpp (CCACHE_CPP2) is enabled.

  • ccache now understands the undocumented -coverage (only one dash) GCC option.

ccache 3.2.7

Release date: 2016-07-20

Bug fixes

  • Fixed a bug which could lead to false cache hits for compiler command lines with a missing argument to an option that takes an argument.

  • ccache now knows how to work around a glitch in the output of GCC 6’s preprocessor.

ccache 3.2.6

Release date: 2016-07-12

Bug fixes

  • Fixed build problem on QNX, which lacks “SA_RESTART”.

  • Bail out on compiler option -fstack-usage since it creates a .su file which ccache currently doesn’t handle.

  • Fixed a bug where (due to ccache rewriting paths) the compiler could choose incorrect include files if CCACHE_BASEDIR is used and the source file path is absolute and is a symlink.

ccache 3.2.5

Release date: 2016-04-17

New features and enhancements

  • Only pass Clang-specific -stdlib= to the preprocessor.

  • Improved handling of stale NFS handles.

  • Made it harder to misinterpret documentation of boolean environment settings’ semantics.

Bug fixes

  • Include m4 files used by in the source dist archives.

  • Corrected "Performance" section in the manual regarding __DATE_, __TIME__ and __FILE__ macros.

  • Fixed build on Solaris 10+ and AIX 7.

  • Fixed failure to create directories on QNX.

  • Don’t (try to) update manifest file in “read-only” and “read-only direct” modes.

  • Fixed a bug in caching of stat system calls in “file_stat_matches sloppiness mode”.

  • Fixed bug in hashing of Clang plugins, leading to unnecessary cache misses.

  • Fixed --print-config to show “pch_defines sloppiness”.

  • The man page is now built when running “make install” from Git repository sources.

ccache 3.2.4

Release date: 2015-10-08

Bug fixes

  • Fixed build error related to zlib on systems with older make versions (regression in ccache 3.2.3).

  • Made conversion-to-bool explicit to avoid build warnings (and potential runtime errors) on legacy systems.

  • Improved signal handling: Kill compiler on SIGTERM; wait for compiler to exit before exiting; die appropriately.

  • Minor fixes related to Windows support.

  • The correct compression level is now used if compression is requested.

  • Fixed a bug where cache cleanup could be run too early for caches larger than 64 GiB on 32-bit systems.

ccache 3.2.3

Release date: 2015-08-16

New features and enhancements

  • Added support for compiler option -gsplit-dwarf.

Bug fixes

  • Support external zlib in nonstandard directory.

  • Avoid calling exit() inside an exit handler.

  • Let exit handler terminate properly.

  • Bail out on compiler option --save-temps in addition to -save-temps.

  • Only log "Disabling direct mode" once when failing to read potential include files.

ccache 3.2.2

Release date: 2015-05-10

New features and enhancements

  • Added support for CCACHE_COMPILERCHECK=string:<value>. This is a faster alternative to CCACHE_COMPILERCHECK=<command> if the command’s output can be precalculated by the build system.

  • Add support for caching code coverage results (compiling for gcov).

Bug fixes

  • Made hash of cached result created with and without CCACHE_CPP2 different. This makes it possible to rebuild with CCACHE_CPP2 set without having to clear the cache to get new results.

  • Don’t try to reset a nonexistent stats file. This avoids “No such file or directory” messages in the ccache log when the cache directory doesn’t exist.

  • Fixed a bug where ccache deleted Clang diagnostics after compiler failures.

  • Avoid performing an unnecessary copy of the object file on a cache miss.

  • Bail out on too hard compiler option -fmodules.

  • Bail out on too hard compiler option -fplugin=libcc1plugin (interaction with GDB).

  • Fixed build error when compiling ccache with recent Clang versions.

  • Removed signal-unsafe code from signal handler.

  • Corrected logic for when to output cached stderr.

  • Wipe the whole cached result on failure retrieving a cached file.

  • Fixed build error when compiling ccache with recent Clang versions.

ccache 3.2.1

Release date: 2014-12-10

Bug fixes

  • Fixed regression in temporary file handling, which lead to incorrect permissions for stats, manifest and ccache.conf files in the cache.

  • CACHEDIR.TAG files are now created in the [0-9a-f] subdirectories so that ccache.conf is not lost in backups.

  • Made the default cache size suffix G, as previously documented.

  • -fdiagnostics-color=auto is now passed to the compiler even if stderr is redirected. This fixes a problem when, for instance, a configure test probes if the compiler (wrapped via ccache) supports -fdiagnostics-color=auto.

  • Added missing documentation for max_files and max_size configuration options.

ccache 3.2

Release date: 2014-11-17

New features and enhancements

  • Added support for configuring ccache via one or several configuration files instead of via environment variables. Environment variables still have priority but are no longer the recommended way of customizing ccache behavior. See the manual for more information.

  • Added support for compiler error/warning messages with color.

  • Made creation of temporary directories and cache directories smarter to avoid unnecessary stat calls.

  • Improved efficiency of the algorithm that scans for __DATE_ and __TIME__ tokens in the hashed source code.

  • Added support for several binaries (separated by space) in CCACHE_PREFIX.

  • The -c option is no longer passed to the preprocessor. This fixes problems with Clang and Solaris’s C++ compiler.

  • ccache no longer passes preprocessor options like -D and -I to the compiler when compiling preprocessed output. This fixes warnings emitted by Clang.

  • Compiler options -fprofile-generate, -fprofile-arcs, -fprofile-use and -fbranch-probabilities are now handled without bailing.

  • Added support for Clang’s --serialize-diagnostic option, storing the diagnostic file (.dia) in the cache.

  • Added support for precompiled headers when using Clang.

  • Added support for Clang .pth (pretokenized header) files.

  • Changed the -x language option to use the new objective C standard for GCC and Clang.

  • On a cache miss, ccache now instructs the compiler to create the object file at the real destination and then copies the file into the cache instead of the other way around. This is needed to support compiler options like -fprofile-arcs and --serialize-diagnostics.

  • ccache now checks that included files’ ctimes aren’t too new. This check can be turned off by adding include_file_ctime to the “ccache sloppiness” setting.

  • Added possibility to get cache hits based on filename, size, mtime and ctime only. On other words, source code files are not even read, only stat-ed. This operation mode is opt-in by adding file_stat_matches to the “ccache sloppiness” setting.

  • The filename part of options like -Wp,-MDfilename is no longer included in the hash since the filename doesn’t have any bearing on the result.

  • Added a “read-only direct” configuration setting, which is like the ordinary read-only setting except that ccache will only try to retrieve results from the cache using the direct mode, not the preprocessor mode.

  • The display and interpretation of cache size has been changed to use SI units.

  • Default cache size is now 5 GB (was previously 1 GiB).

  • Added configuration option to set the compression level of compressed object files in the cache.

  • Added support for @file and -@file arguments (reading options from a file).

  • -Wl, options are no longer included in the hash since they don’t affect compilation.

  • Bail out on too hard compiler option -Wp,-P.

  • Optimized MD4 calculation code on little-endian systems.

  • Various improvements and fixes on win32.

  • Improved logging to the ccache log file.

  • Added --dump-manifest command-line option for debugging purposes.

  • Added --with-bundled-zlib configure option.

  • Upgraded bundled zlib to version 1.2.8.

  • Improved to be more platform independent.

  • Made the test suite work with Clang and gcc-llvm on OS X.

  • Various other improvements of the test suite.

Bug fixes

  • Any previous .stderr is now removed from the cache when recaching.

  • Fixed an issue when handling the -arch compiler option with an argument.

  • Fixed race condition when creating the initial cache directory.

  • Fixed test suite failures when CC is a ccache-wrapped compiler.

ccache 3.1.12

Release date: 2016-07-12

Bug fixes

  • Fixed a bug where (due to ccache rewriting paths) the compiler could choose incorrect include files if CCACHE_BASEDIR is used and the source file path is absolute and is a symlink.

ccache 3.1.11

Release date: 2015-03-07

Bug fixes

  • Fixed bug which could result in false cache hits when source code contains '"' followed by " /*" or " //" (with variations).

  • Made hash of cached result created with and without CCACHE_CPP2 different. This makes it possible to rebuild with CCACHE_CPP2 set without having to clear the cache to get new results.

  • Don’t try to reset a nonexistent stats file. This avoids “No such file or directory” messages in the ccache log when the cache directory doesn’t exist.

ccache 3.1.10

Release date: 2014-10-19

New features and enhancements

  • Added support for the -Xclang compiler option.

  • Improved handling of exit code of internally executed processes.

  • Zero length object files in the cache are now rejected as invalid.

  • Bail out on option -gsplit-dwarf (since it produces multiple output files).

  • Compiler option -fdebug-prefix-map is now ignored (not part of the hash). (The -fdebug-prefix-map option may be used in combination with CCACHE_BASEDIR to reuse results across different directories.)

  • Added note in documentation that --ccache-skip currently does not mean “don’t hash the following option”.

  • To enable support for precompiled headers (PCH), CCACHE_SLOPPINESS now also needs to include the new pch_defines sloppiness. This is because ccache can’t detect changes in the source code when only defined macros have been changed.

  • Stale files in the internal temporary directory (<ccache_dir>/tmp) are now cleaned up if they are older than one hour.

Bug fixes

  • Fixed path canonicalization in make_relative_path() when path doesn’t exist.

  • Fixed bug in common_dir_prefix_length(). This corrects the CCACHE_BASEDIR behavior.

  • ccache no longer tries to create the cache directory when CCACHE_DISABLE is set.

  • Fixed bug when reading manifests with a very large number of file info entries.

  • Fixed problem with logging of current working directory.

ccache 3.1.9

Release date: 2013-01-06

Bug fixes

  • The EAGAIN signal is now handled correctly when emitting cached stderr output. This fixes a problem triggered by large error outputs from the compiler.

  • Subdirectories in the cache are no longer created in read-only mode.

  • Fixed so that ccache’s log file descriptor is not made available to the compiler.

  • Improved error reporting when failing to create temporary stdout/stderr files when executing the compiler.

  • Disappearing temporary stdout/stderr files are now handled gracefully.


  • Fixed test suite to work on ecryptfs.

ccache 3.1.8

Release date: 2012-08-11

New features and enhancements

  • Made paths to dependency files relative in order to increase cache hits.

  • Added work-around to make ccache work with buggy GCC 4.1 when creating a pre-compiled header.

  • Clang plugins are now hashed to catch plugin upgrades.

Bug fixes

  • Fixed crash when the current working directory has been removed.

  • Fixed crash when stderr is closed.

  • Corrected a corner case when parsing backslash escapes in string literals.

  • Paths are now correctly canonicalized when computing paths relative to the base directory.


  • Made git version macro work when compiling outside of the source directory.

  • Fixed static_assert macro definition clash with GCC 4.7.

ccache 3.1.7

Release date: 2012-01-08

Bug fixes

  • Non-writable CCACHE_DIR is now handled gracefully when CCACHE_READONLY is set.

  • Made failure to create files (typically due to bad directory permissions) in the cache directory fatal. Previously, such failures were silently and erroneously flagged as "compiler produced stdout".

  • Both the -specs=file and --specs=file forms are now recognized.

  • Added recognition and hashing of GCC plugins specified with -fplugin=file.

  • CCACHE_COMPILERCHECK now also determines how to hash explicit specs files (-specs=file).

  • Added CPATH, C_INCLUDE_PATH and similar environment variables to the hash to avoid false cache hits when such variables have changed.

  • Corrected log message when unify mode is enabled.

  • Reverted the GCC bug compatibility introduced in ccache 3.1.5 for -MT/-MQ options with concatenated arguments. (The bug is fixed in recent GCC versions.)


  • Corrected license header for mdfour.c.

  • Improved documentation on how to fix bad object files in the cache.

ccache 3.1.6

Release date: 2011-08-21

New features and enhancements

  • Rewrite argument to --sysroot if CCACHE_BASEDIR is used.

Bug fixes

  • Don’t crash if getcwd() fails.

  • Fixed alignment of “called for preprocessing” counter.

ccache 3.1.5

Release date: 2011-05-29

New features and enhancements

  • Added a new statistics counter named “called for preprocessing”.

  • The original command line is now logged to the file specified with CCACHE_LOGFILE.

  • Improved error logging when system calls fail.

  • Added support for rewriting absolute paths in -F/-iframework GCC options.

  • Improved order of statistics counters in ccache -s output.

Bug fixes

  • The -MF/-MT/-MQ options with concatenated argument are now handled correctly when they are last on the command line.

  • ccache is now bug compatible with GCC for the -MT/-MQ options with concatenated arguments.

  • Fixed a minor memory leak.

  • Systems that lack (and don’t need to be linked with) libm are now supported.

ccache 3.1.4

Release date: 2011-01-09

Bug fixes

  • Made a work-around for a bug in gzputc() in zlib 1.2.5.

  • Corrupt manifest files are now removed so that they won’t block direct mode hits.

  • ccache now copes with file systems that don’t know about symbolic links.

  • The file handle in now correctly closed on write error when trying to create a cache dir tag.

ccache 3.1.3

Release date: 2010-11-28

Bug fixes

  • The -MFarg, -MTarg and -MQarg compiler options (i.e, without space between option and argument) are now handled correctly.


  • Portability fixes for HP-UX 11.00 and other esoteric systems.

ccache 3.1.2

Release date: 2010-11-21

Bug fixes

  • Bail out on too hard compiler options -fdump-*.

  • NULL return values from malloc/calloc of zero bytes are now handled correctly.

  • Fixed issue when parsing precompiler output on AIX.


  • Improved documentation on which information is included in the hash sum.

  • Made the “too new header file” test case work on file systems with unsynchronized clocks.

  • The test suite now also works on systems that lack a /dev/zero.

ccache 3.1.1

Release date: 2010-11-07

Bug fixes

  • ccache now falls back to preprocessor mode when a non-regular include file (device, socket, etc) has been detected so that potential hanging due to blocking reads is avoided.

  • CRC errors are now detected when decompressing compressed files in the cache.

  • Fixed potential object file corruption race on NFS.

  • Minor documentation corrections.

  • Fixed configure detection of ar.

  • ccache development version (set by now works with gits whose describe command doesn’t understand --dirty.


  • Minor debug log message improvements.

ccache 3.1

Release date: 2010-09-16

New features and enhancements

  • Added support for hashing the output of a custom command (e.g. %compiler% --version) to identify the compiler instead of stat-ing or hashing the compiler binary. This can improve robustness when the compiler (as seen by ccache) actually isn’t the real compiler but another compiler wrapper.

  • Added support for caching compilations that use precompiled headers. (See the manual for important instructions regarding this.)

  • Locking of the files containing statistics counters is now done using symlinks instead of POSIX locks. This should make ccache behave a lot better on file systems where POSIX locks are slow or broken (e.g. NFS on some systems).

  • Manifest files are now updated without the need of taking locks.

  • Updates of statistics counters are now always done in one of the sub-level statistics files. This reduces lock contention, which especially improves performance on slow NFS mounts.

  • Reading and writing of statistics counters has been made forward-compatible (unknown counters are retained).

  • Files are now read without using mmap(). This has two benefits: it’s more robust against file changes during reading and it improves performance on poor systems where mmap() doesn’t use the disk cache.

  • Added .cp and .CP as known C++ suffixes.

  • Improved logging.

  • Added -install_name as an option known to take an argument. (This improves statistics when using the Darwin linker.)

Bug fixes

  • Non-fatal error messages are now never printed to stderr but logged instead.

  • Fixed a bug affecting failing commands when --ccache-skip is used.

  • Made --ccache-skip work for all options.

  • EINTR is now handled correctly.


  • Work on porting ccache to win32 (native), mostly done by Ramiro Polla. The port is not yet finished, but will hopefully be complete in some subsequent release.

  • Added a --nostats flag to the performance benchmark program.

  • Made the performance benchmark program more accurate when measuring cache hits.

  • Added a new test framework for unit tests written in C.

  • Got rid of configure-dev; dev mode is now given by presence.

  • Improved documentation on how to combine ccache with other compiler wrappers (like distcc).

  • New LICENSE.txt file with licensing and copyright details about bundled source code.

  • New AUTHORS.txt file with a list of ccache contributors.

  • New HACKING.txt file with some notes about ccache code conventions.

ccache 3.0.1

Release date: 2010-07-15

Bug fixes

  • The statistics counter “called for link” is now correctly updated when linking with a single object file.

  • Fixed a problem with out-of-source builds.

ccache 3.0

Release date: 2010-06-20


  • ccache is now licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) version 3 or later.

Upgrade notes

  • The way the hashes are calculated has changed, so you won’t get cache hits for compilation results stored by older ccache versions. Because of this, you might as well clear the old cache directory with ccache --clear if you want, unless you plan to keep using an older ccache version.

New features and enhancements

  • ccache now has a “direct mode” where it computes a hash of the source code (including all included files) and compiler options without running the preprocessor. By not running the preprocessor, CPU usage is reduced; the speed is somewhere between 1 and 5 times that of ccache running in traditional mode, depending on the circumstances. The speedup will be higher when I/O is fast (e.g., when files are in the disk cache). The direct mode can be disabled by setting CCACHE_NODIRECT.

  • Support has been added for rewriting absolute paths to relative paths when hashing, in order to increase cache hit rate when building the same source code in different directories even when compiling with -g and when using absolute include directory paths. This is done by setting the CCACHE_BASEDIR environment variable to an absolute path that specifies which paths to rewrite.

  • Object files are now optionally stored compressed in the cache. The runtime cost is negligible, and more files will fit in the ccache directory and in the disk cache. Set CCACHE_COMPRESS to enable object file compression. Note that you can’t use compression in combination with the hard link feature.

  • A CCACHE_COMPILERCHECK option has been added. This option tells ccache what compiler-identifying information to hash to ensure that results retrieved from the cache are accurate. Possible values are: none (don’t hash anything), mtime (hash the compiler’s mtime and size) and content (hash the content of the compiler binary). The default is mtime.

  • It is now possible to specify extra files whose contents should be included in the hash sum by setting the CCACHE_EXTRAFILES option.

  • Added support for Objective-C and Objective-C++. The statistics counter “not a C/C++ file” has been renamed to “unsupported source language”.

  • Added support for the -x compiler option.

  • Added support for long command-line options.

  • A CACHEDIR.TAG file is now created in the cache directory. See

  • Messages printed to the debug log (specified by CCACHE_LOGFILE) have been improved.

  • You can relax some checks that ccache does in direct mode by setting CCACHE_SLOPPINESS. See the manual for more information.

  • CCACHE_TEMPDIR no longer needs to be on the same filesystem as CCACHE_DIR.

  • The default value of CCACHE_TEMPDIR has been changed to $CCACHE_DIR/tmp to avoid cluttering the top directory.

  • Temporary files that later will be moved into the cache are now created in the cache directory they will end up in. This makes ccache more friendly to Linux’s directory layout.

  • Improved the test suite and added tests for most of the new functionality. It’s now also possible to specify a subset of tests to run.

  • Standard error output from the compiler is now only stored in the cache if it’s non-empty.

  • If the compiler produces no object file or an empty object file, but gives a zero exit status (could be due to a file system problem, a buggy program specified by CCACHE_PREFIX, etc.), ccache copes with it properly.

  • Added installcheck and distcheck make targets.

  • Clarified cache size limit options’ and cleanup semantics.

  • Improved display of cache max size values.

  • The following options are no longer hashed in the preprocessor mode: -imacros, -imultilib, -iprefix, -iquote, -isysroot, -iwithprefix, -iwithprefixbefore, -nostdinc, -nostdinc++ and -U.

Bug fixes

  • Various portability improvements.

  • Improved detection of home directory.

  • User-defined CPPFLAGS and LDFLAGS are now respected in the Makefile.

  • Fixed NFS issues.

  • Computation of the hash sum has been improved to decrease the risk of hash collisions. For instance, the compiler options -X -Y and -X-Y previously contributed equally to the hash sum.

  • Bail out on too hard compiler options --coverage, -fprofile-arcs, -fprofile-generate, -fprofile-use, -frepo, -ftest-coverage and -save-temps. Also bail out on @file style options.

  • Errors when using multiple -arch compiler options are now noted as “unsupported compiler option”.

  • -MD/-MMD options without -MT/-MF are now handled correctly.

  • The -finput-charset option is now handled correctly.

  • Added support for -Wp,-MD and -Wp,-MMD options.

  • The compiler options -Xassembler, -b, -G and -V are now correctly recognized as taking an argument.

  • Debug information containing line numbers of predefined and command-line macros (enabled with the compiler option -g3) will now be correct.

  • Corrected LRU cleanup handling of object files.

  • utimes() is now used instead of utime() when available.

  • Non-writable cache directories are now handled gracefully.

  • Corrected documentation about sharing the cache directory.

  • Fixed compilation warnings from GCC 4.3.

  • The command specified by CCACHE_PREFIX is no longer part of the hash.

  • Fixed bad memory access spotted by Valgrind.

  • Fixed a bug in x_realloc.

  • Freed memory is no longer referenced when compiling a .i/.ii file and falling back to running the real compiler.

  • The test suite is now immune to external values of the CCACHE_* environment variables.

  • Improved detection of recursive invocation.

  • The ccache binary is now not unconditionally stripped when installing.

  • Statistics counters are now correctly updated for -E option failures and internal errors.